Actualidades en Psicología 27 (115)

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  • Ítem
    The sociocultural gaze in narrative practices of Spanish-speaking children
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Auza Benavides, Alejandra
    Este volumen ha reunido una serie de investigaciones elaboradas en torno al tema de la narración infantil. La originalidad del volumen que nos ocupa es por un lado, que se trata de trabajos en poblaciones de niños hispanohablantes que viven en diferentes culturas. Aunque en la última década han aumentado los estudios sobre la adquisición del español todavía existen muchas facetas qué estudiar para comprender mejor los procesos del desarrollo del lenguaje. Por otro lado, el volumen examina la narración mediante prácticas narrativas en América Latina. Este abordaje permite comprender la necesidad de considerar a la cultura como parte explicativa de la construcción del lenguaje.
  • Ítem
    Parent-child conversations in three urban middle-class contexts: Mothers and fathers reminisce with their daughters and sons in Costa Rica, Mexico, and Germany
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Schröder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; Kleis, Astrid
    Abstract. The present study investigated culture- and gender-differences in mother- and father-child reminiscing with 3-year old daughters and sons in urban middle-class families from Costa Rica, Mexico, and Germany. Families of the three contexts were overall similarly elaborative and children contributed a similar amount of memory elaborations. However, context specific use of different elaborative elements related to specifi c elaborative styles. Compared to the Latin American families, conversations in German families were least socially oriented. Across contexts, parents talked more about social aspects with daughters than with sons. Costa Rican mothers and fathers were equally elaborative, whereas German and Mexican mothers were more elaborative than fathers. We found similarities but also specifi cities in parent-child conversations about the past across these contexts with similar educational backgrounds.Resumen. El presente estudio investigó diferencias según cultura y género en las conversaciones sobre el pasado de niños y niñas de 3 años de edad con sus progenitores en contextos urbanos en Costa Rica, México y Alemania. En los tres contextos, el nivel de elaboración general de las conversaciones fue similar y los niños produjeron una cantidad similar de recuerdos. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias culturales en algunos aspectos de elaboración. En comparación con las familias latinoamericanas, las conversaciones de las familias alemanas estaban orientadas socialmente en menor medida. En todos los contextos, los progenitores hablaron más acerca de aspectos sociales con las hijas que con los hijos. Padres y madres costarricenses evidenciaron niveles de elaboración similares, mientras que las madres alemanas y mexicanas mostraron niveles de elaboración mayores que los padres. Nuestros hallazgos indican la presencia de similitudes y diferencias en las conversaciones sobre el pasado en familias con niveles educativos similares provenientes de distintos contextos culturales.
  • Ítem
    High point narrative structure in mother-child conversations about the past and children’s emergent literacy skills in Costa Rica
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Sparks, Alison; Carmiol Barboza, Ana María; Ríos Reyes, Marcela
    Abstract. The relationship between narrative coherence in mother-child conversations about past events and children’s concurrent emergent literacy was examined in a sample of 32 Spanish-speaking, middle-class, Costa Rican mothers and their preschoolers. Coherence, as expressed in the constituents of high point narrative structure, was measured in reminiscing conversations about everyday events. Our purposes were twofold: 1) to see whether their co constructed narratives in talk about the past could be meaningfully examined for the constituents of high point narrative structure and 2) to explore the links between coherence in these narratives and children’s language and literacy skills. We found a full range of the constituents of high point structure in these conversations, with more advanced forms of narrative structure produced in conversations about the child’s misbehavior. Conversations about misbehavior events were most frequently in the form of classic, high point narratives. In addition, a rich set of relationships between coherence in reminiscing conversations and children’s language and literacy skills were observed. The results revealed similarities in the narrative practices found in this middle-class sample in Costa Rica to both middle-class families in other parts of the world and to conversation and cultural practices unique to Latino communities. 
  • Ítem
    Oral Narratives Comprehension in children with Specific Language Impairment
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Coloma, Carmen Julia; Maggiolo, Mariangela; Pavez, María Mercedes
    The present study aimed to provide information about oral narratives comprehension in a group of Chilean children diagnosed with Specifi c Language Impairment (SLI), without pragmatic disorders. Sixty children were divided into three different groups: 1) twenty children with SLI (average age of 6.6 years old), 2) twenty children grouped by chronological age, and 3) twenty children grouped by linguistic age. Both control groups demonstrated typical language development. Narrative comprehension was assessed through factual and inferential questions based in three stories. Results showed that children with SLI are similar to the linguistic controls when considering the global comprehension, factual and inferential questions, while they significantly differed from the chronological controls.
  • Ítem
    Fun and frustrations: Low-income Chilean parents reminiscing with their children about past emotional experiences
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Nolivos, Virginia; Leyva, Diana
    One way in which parents support the development of children’s socioemotional abilities is through reminiscing about emotional experiences. This study: a) investigated how low-income Chilean families through reminiscing label, explain, and reason about emotionally positive and negative experiences; and b) documented the emotional narrative themes that families discuss. Sixty-two parents and their preschoolers were videotaped reminiscing about a time when the child was happy and a time when the child was unhappy. Half of the children were girls. Narratives were transcribed and coded for a variety of emotion-content categories. Results showed that conversations about negative experiences were richer in emotional content (emotional states, facial expressions, emotional evaluations, emotion causes, emotion consequences, and mind-emotion connections) than positive conversations. Dyads more often discussed outing themes when reminiscing about positive experiences and peer confl ict themes when reminiscing about negative experiences. This work can inform interventions targeting low-income families in Latin America.
  • Ítem
    Bilingual mothers’ expressions of affect
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Shiro, Martha
    Abstract. The purpose of this study is to examine the uses of  affectivity in L1 and L2 in 10 bilingual mothers´ interactions with their 30-month olds. The expressions of emotion, volition and epistemic stance were identifi ed in 30 spontaneous mother-child interactions: (a) 10 Spanish L1 mothers speaking in L1; (b) 10 Spanish L1 mothers speaking in English L2; and (c) 10 English L1 mothers speaking in L1. The results suggest that L2 uses differ from L1: expressions of volition and epistemic stance in English L2 resemble their use in English L1, whereas expressions of emotions in English L2 are similar to Spanish L1. These findings shed light on bilingual speakers´ expressive language and are useful in determining the impact on language development.
  • Ítem
    Latino children’s narrative competencies over the preschool years
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Melzi, Gigliana; Schick, Adina; Bostwick, Emily
    Narrating is a sophisticated discourse skill that emerges during the preschool years, and is both correlated with and predictive of various aspects of school performance. The existing research on children’s narrative development provides a limited snapshot of the narrative trajectories of Latino children living in the United States. The present study examined the narrative skills of 118 low-income Latino children over a twoyear period. Results showed that there were signifi cant developmental changes in children’s storybook retelling skills over the preschool years. By age five, children were more autonomous in their narration, produced more coherent and complex stories, and incorporated more sophisticated language in their narratives than did younger preschoolers. Further analyses identified those specifi c macro- and micro-structural skills that develop during the preschool years.
  • Ítem
    Lexical development during adolescence: An analysis of nouns in oral and written narratives
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Hess Zimmermann, Karina
    During the school years, lexical acquisition is directly related to experience with written language. In this study we investigated how adolescents make lexical choices in two different discursive contexts: oral and written narratives. Participants were 24 adolescents that belonged to two different social environments, determined by the amount of previous experience with literacy. Narratives were analyzed for the presence of literary academic language. Therefore a semantic-pragmatic analysis of nouns using the Noun Scale Analysis (Ravid, 2006) was conducted. Results show differences between groups of adolescents and between oral and written modalities.
  • Ítem
    Evaluative language development in narratives of Mexican children from 3 to 12 years
    (2013-10-22 00:00:00) Romero Contreras, Silvia; Gómez Martínez, Gloria Elena
    This study reports on the development of evaluation in elicited oral narratives from 40 Mexican children aged three to twelve years. Each participant produced seven narratives. A series of illustrations from wordless picture books was used as elicitation material. We defi ned evaluation as the expression of the position of the narrator through comments about the events and characters, and the emotions of the characters in the story. The analysis included the construction of categories taking into account both the literature on evaluation in narratives, and the data itself. Results show that quantity of evaluative expressions and their level of discourse elaboration vary across ages.