Farmacia

URI permanente para esta colección

Examinar

Envíos recientes

Mostrando 1 - 20 de 207
  • Ítem
    Revisión de la fisiología anorrectal y posibles compuestos bioactivos para la erocosmética
    (2023) Monge Jiménez, Sebastián; Piedra Robles, Mariana; Portuguez Solano, Valeria; Fernández Sequeira, Daniela; Chavarría Rojas, Marianela; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo; Baltodano Viales, Eleaneth
    Objetivo: realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre la fisiología ano-rectal, el proceso de relajación y contracción del músculo liso del tracto digestivo y posibles materias primas y formulaciones que podrían incorporarse a formulaciones erocosméticas de uso tópico en la región ano-rectal. Métodos: la revisión bibliográfica se realizó utilizando diferentes descriptores y mediante la consulta en las bases de datos ScienceDirect, PubMed, Clinical Key, Google Scholar y Google Patents. Resultados: inicialmente la revisión de la literatura permite comprender la anatomía y fisiología ano-rectal y los mecanismos que modulan la continencia anal, el tono basal del esfínter anal interno y el reflejo inhibitorio rectoanal (RAIR). Posteriormente, se obtuvo información sobre ejemplos de afrodisíacos naturales y se analizaron formulaciones cosméticas utilizadas como lubricantes anales con el fin de estudiar a profundidad los ingredientes de origen natural e identificar su utilidad, mecanismos de acción tópicos y su función dentro de la formulación. Conclusiones: el entendimiento de la fisiología ano-rectal permite el estudio y desarrollo de formulaciones cosméticas con propiedades analgésicas, anestésicas y relajantes, como los lubricantes anales. Productos naturales como la manzanilla, árnica, Aloe vera y mentol han sido estudiados para su uso cosmético y tópico como analgésicos, anestésicos o relajantes,por lo que su utilidad comprobada los hace útiles en el desarrollo de productos erocosméticos destinados para ser utilizados en la región anogenital.
  • Ítem
    Monoclonal antibodies: A therapeutic option for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases of the eye posterior segment
    (2022-08-31) Ayón Chang, Catalina; Castán, Daniel; Mora Carmona, Adrián; Naranjo, Dunia; Obando, Francini; Mora Román, Juan José
    The eye is an organ that allows us to observe the outside world. Pathologies of the eye's posterior segment, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, and retinoblastoma, cause vision loss. Traditional treatments consist of applying topical medications that do not penetrate properly or using high doses that generate adverse effects. Different laser surgeries stop the pathology's progression but do not allow visual improvement. So, an alternative is to use monoclonal antibodies, proteins produced by different processes that selectively bind to metabolites associated with diseases, reducing the adverse effects of traditional treatments and improving the application of the drug in the area. The two main molecular targets are TNF (adalimumab, infliximab, and certolizumab pegol) and VEGF (bevacizumab and ranibizumab); other possibilities are under investigation.
  • Ítem
    Comparación de requisitos específicos para el registro sanitario de medicamentos biológicos en Centroamérica y República Dominicana
    (2022-07-05) González Rodríguez, Daniela; Zúñiga Villalobos, Keren; Pacheco Molina, Jorge Andrés; Mora Román, Juan José
    Introducción: Los medicamentos biológicos son productos que tienen como principios activos uno o más derivados de material biológico extraídos de fluidos, tejidos o microorganismos, mientras que los biotecnológicos se desarrollan a través de la tecnología de ADN recombinante con la implantación de material genético de genes pertenecientes a una especie en otra diferente. Objetivo:comparar los requisitos regulatorios específicos para el registro sanitario de medicamentos biológicos, específicamente productos de ADN recombinante, vacunas y hemoderivados de acuerdo con la legislación vigente en Centroamérica y República Dominicana. Métodos: se obtuvieron las normativas vigentes de cada país de interés. Luego, se hizo una revisión minuciosa de los documentos y se resumieron los requisitos que aplicaban para cada nación y se compararon entre ellos. Resultados: Costa Rica es el único país que cuenta con requerimientos específicos para proteínas recombinantes, vacunas y hemoderivados. Guatemala y Panamá los solicitan para los dos últimos grupos, y Nicaragua para proteínas recombinantes y vacunas. Conclusiones: la ausencia de homologación complica la labor para obtener el registro sanitario en estos territorios, por lo que es necesario agilizar este proceso a través de dicha homologación.
  • Ítem
    Estimating the performance of mass testing strategies for COVID-19: a case study for Costa Rica
    (2022-09-09) Solís Chacón, Maikol; Pasquier, Carlos; Núñez Corrales, Santiago; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo; Gatica Arias, Andrés Mauricio
    Devising effective mass testing strategies to control and suppress COVID-19 pandemic waves make up a complex sociotechnical challenge. It requires a trade-off between performing detection technologies in terms of specificity and sensitivity, and the availability and cost of individual tests per technology. Overcoming this trade-off requires first predicting the level of risk of exposure across the population available. Then selecting testing strategies that match resources to maximize positive case detection and optimize the number of tests and their total cost during sustained mass testing campaigns. In this article, we derive the behavior of four different mass testing strategies, grounded in guidelines and public health policies issued by the Costa Rican public healthcare system. We assume a (privacy-preserving) pre-classifier applied to patient data, Capable of partitioning suspected individuals into low-risk and high-risk groups. We consider the impact of three testing technologies, RT-qPCR, antigen-based testing and saliva-based testing (RT-LAMP). When available, we introduced a category of essential workers. Numerical simulation results confirm that strategies using only RT-qPCR tests cannot achieve sufficient stock capacity to provide efficient detection regardless of prevalence, sensitivity, or specificity. Strategies that harness the power of both pooling and RT-LAMP either maximize stock capacity or detection, efficiency, or both. Our work reveals that investing both in data quality and classification accuracy can improve the odds of achieving pandemic control and mitigation. Future work will concentrate, based on our findings, on constructing representative synthetic data through agent-based modeling and studying the properties of specific pre-classifiers under various scenarios.
  • Ítem
    The Natural Products Atlas 2.0: a database of microbially-derived natural products
    (2021-10-28) van Santen, Jeffrey A.; Poynton, Ella F.; Iskakova, Dasha; McMann, Emily; Alsup, Tyler A.; Clark, Trevor N.; Fergusson, Claire H.; Fewer, David P.; Hughes, Alison H.; McCadden, Caitlin A.; Parra Villalobos, Jonathan; Soldatou, Sylvia; Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Janssen, Elisabeth M. L.; Duncan, Katherine R.; Linington, Roger G.
    Within the natural products field there is an increasing emphasis on the study of compounds from microbial sources. This has been fuelled by interest in the central role that microorganisms play in mediating both interspecies interactions and host-microbe relationships. To support the study of natural products chemistry produced by microorganisms we released the Natural Products Atlas, a database of known microbial natural products structures, in 2019. This paper reports the release of a new version of the database which includes a full RESTful application programming interface (API), a new website framework, and an expanded database that includes 8128 new compounds, bringing the total to 32 552. In addition to these structural and content changes we have added full taxonomic descriptions for all microbial taxa and have added chemical ontology terms from both NP Classifier and ClassyFire. We have also performed manual curation to review all entries with incomplete configurational assignments and have integrated data from external resources, including CyanoMetDB. Finally, we have improved the user experience by updating the Overview dashboard and creating a dashboard for taxonomic origin. The database can be accessed via the new interactive website at https://www.npatlas.org.
  • Ítem
    Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and alternative protocols for lower cost, large-scale COVID-19 testing: lessons from an emerging economy
    (2022-03-18) Segura Ulate, Ismael; Bolívar González, Alejandro; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo; Núñez Corrales, Santiago; Gatica Arias, Andrés Mauricio
    Introduction: Most successful cases of COVID-19 pandemic mitigation and handling have relied on extensive reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, many emerging economies have struggled with current molecular testing demands due to economic, technical and technological constraints. Objective: To define a potential diagnostic protocol to increase testing capacity in current and post-pandemic conditions. Methods: We reviewed the literature, patents and commercial applications, for alternatives. Results: We found a good potential in saliva samples, viral inactivation and quick RNA extraction by heating; the use of an isothermal technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and naked eye test-result visualization by in-tube colorimetry or turbidity. Conclusions: Saliva samples with quick RNA extraction by heating and colorimetric LAMP are promising options for countries with economic and infrastructure limitations.
  • Ítem
    Aplicaciones de los nanoanticuerpos en la medicina
    (2022-04-21) Ortega Monge, Celeste; Arce Rodríguez, Noelia; Santamaría Muñoz, Maripaz; Chavarría Rojas, Marianela; Rojas Salas, María Fernanda; Baltodano Viales, Eleaneth; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo
    Introducción: Los nanoanticuerpos están compuestos únicamente por la región variable de la cadena pesada y se obtienen a partir de algunas especies de camélidos y tiburones. Tienen alta capacidad de unión, alta especificidad, tamaño pequeño, alta accesibilidad y alta penetración de los tejidos, por lo que potencialmente podrían ser utilizados para el tratamiento, diagnóstico y prevención de diferentes enfermedades. Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las aplicaciones médicas de los nanoanticuerpos. Se examinaron artículos científicos publicados en inglés y español desde 2015 a 2021 en las bases de datos Google Académico, ElSevier, PubMed, Clinical trials, Annual Reviews y ScienceDirect. Se prefirieron los estudios que demostraron mayor valor según el idioma, veracidad de la información y fecha de publicación. Resultados y discusión: En total, se seleccionaron 21 artículos para ser evaluados y analizados, de los cuales 20 fueron estudios preclínicos y un estudio clínico. Los nanoanticuerpos destacan como alternativas terapéuticas, diagnósticas y preventivas contra el cáncer, la hepatitis C, el Alzheimer, el Parkinson, la diarrea provocada por rotavirus y el COVID-19. Conclusiones: Los nanoanticuerpos pueden ser de gran utilidad para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de distintas enfermedades; sin embargo, se requiere continuar con el desarrollo de estudios clínicos y preclínicos que respalden la seguridad y eficacia de estos fármacos.
  • Ítem
    CRISPR-Cas technology, the tool of the future
    (2022-03-02) Esquivel Álvarez, Alejandro; Quesada Morales, Elías; Villega Calero, María Paz; Matarrita Brenes, Daniela; Rojas Salas, María Fernanda; Madrigal Redondo, German; Chavarría Rojas, Marianela; Baltodano Viales, Eleaneth
    The CRISPR-Cas system discovered in the eighties consists of a series of RNA proteins that signal and messengers of the immune system in prokaryotic organisms to protect against invading antigens of various sources. After the CRISPR-Cas discovery, many research advances were made in the following decades regarding knowledge, techniques, and applications. This showed the system could edit the DNA in an exact and specific manner, which made it very promising to exploit it in various fields, such as the therapeutic field. New therapies of various diseases, industrial applications, food manufacturing, among others, make its impact quite relevant. The following review will focus on the fundamental understanding and implications of CRISPR-Cas techniques has with an ethical and legal view. In addition, to explore some of the applications present and future in the healthcare department, some methods of drug delivery in gene therapy, and new research that is being developed with the CRISPR-Cas technology.
  • Ítem
    Absence of nephroprotective effect: evaluation of an aqueous extract of Clinopodium vimineum (L.) Kuntze (Lamiaceae) using a renal failure model with female Wistar rats
    (2022) Morales Torres, Katherine; Mora Román, Juan José; Fallas Ramírez, José Manuel; Rodríguez Arrieta, Jesús Alexander; Orozco Aguilar, Josué
    Clinopodium vimineum, popular in Costa Rica as menta de palo, is an aromatic shrub native to Central America and the Caribbean. It is employed in traditional medicine to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms (carminative and antispasmodic properties). Thus, it is reported as an antimicrobial, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, healing, and antioxidant. Therefore, the nephroprotective effect of an aqueous extract of this plant was tested using a model of renal damage induced through potassium chromate in female Wistar rats. The plant material extract was prepared, and a test was carried out with four groups of five experimental subjects each. In addition to the control groups (positive and negative), one group was treated with the extract. Another was also given a pretreatment with this material prior to the induction of acute kidney injury. Each animal's renal function parameters were evaluated. They include creatinine, sodium, potassium, and glucose concentrations in serum and creatinine, sodium, potassium, glucose, and protein concentrations in urine. Urinary flow was obtained too. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of the kidneys was performed. The information obtained concluded that the aqueous extract of C. vimineum does not have a nephroprotective effect in the model of kidney damage induced with potassium chromate in female Wistar rats at the dose tested.
  • Ítem
    Use of the light board tool as a didactic strategy during COVID-19 pandemic
    (2022) Fallas Ramírez, José Manuel; Mora Román, Juan José; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo
    After the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the conventional way of teaching and learning had to move towards virtualization. The light board tool is a technology that allows conventional lessons on a blackboard to be adapted to a virtual context without losing the essence of the classroom. The objective of this work was to know the opinion of pharmacy students from the Universidad de Costa Rica about the light board employment as a didactic strategy for mathematical topics study in the context of virtualization of education due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, 19 videos were developed on the light board to explain various mathematical topics related to the Pharmaceutical Physicochemistry II and Biopharmacy and Pharmacokinetics courses of the Faculty of Pharmacy in 2020 and 2021. After its implementation, 80 students were surveyed to find their opinion about their experience related to teaching and learning processes. The data were tabulated, and the main results were graphed. All students accepted the strategy as a compliment in their study and considered it useful in their learning process. Also, more than 91 % indicated that it was helpful in the order, understanding, explanation, study, and learning of the topics with a mathematical nature. In conclusion, the light board was a good technique for developing mathematical topics, and students recommend utilizing this tool in other similar career courses.
  • Ítem
    MIBiG 3.0: a community-driven effort to annotate experimentally validated biosynthetic gene clusters
    (2023-01-06) Terlouw, Barbara R.; Blin, Kai; Navarro Muñoz, Jorge C.; Avalon, Nicole E.; Chevrette, Marc G.; Egbert, Susan; Lee, Sanghoon; Meijer, David; Recchia, Michael J.J.; Reitz, Zachary L.; van Santen, Jeffrey A.; Selem Mojica, Nelly; Tørring, Thomas; Zaroubi, Liana; Alanjary, Mohammad; Aleti, Gajender; Aguilar, César; Al-Salihi, Suhad A.A.; Augustijn, Hannah E.; Avelar Rivas J. Abraham; Avitia Domínguez, Luis A.; Barona Gómez, Francisco; Bernaldo Agüero, Jordan; Bielinski, Vincent A.; Biermann, Friederike; Booth, Thomas J.; Carrion Bravo, Victor J.; Castelo Branco, Raquel; Chagas, Fernanda O.; Cruz Morales, Pablo; Du, Chao; Duncan, Katherine R.; Gavriilidou, Athina; Gayrard, Damien; Gutiérrez García, Karina; Haslinger, Kristina; Helfrich, Eric J. N.; van der Hooft, Justin J.J.; Jati, Afif P.; Kalkreuter, Edward; Kalyvas, Nikolaos; Kang, Kyo Bin; Kautsar, Satria; Kim, Wonyong; Kunjapur, Aditya M.; Li, Yongxin; Lin, Gengmin; Loureiro, Catarina; Louwen, Joris J. R.; Louwen, Nico L. L.; Lund, George; Parra Villalobos, Jonathan; Philmus, Benjamin; Pourmohsenin, Bita; Pronk, Lotte J.U.; Rego, Adriana; Balaya Rex, Devasahayam Arokia; Robinson, Serina; Rosas Becerra, L. Rodrigo; Roxborough, Eve T.; Schorn, Michelle A.; Scobie, Darren J.; Saurabh Singh, Kumar; Sokolova, Nika; Tang, Xiaoyu; Udwary, Daniel; Vigneshwari, Aruna; Vind, Kristiina; Vromans, Sophie P.J.M.; Waschulin, Valentin; Williams, Sam E.; Winter, Jaclyn M.; Witte, Thomas E.; Xie, Huali; Yang, Dong; Yu, Jingwei; Zdouc, Mitja; Zhong, Zheng; Collemare, Jérôme; Linington, Roger G.; Weber, Tilmann; Medema, Marnix H.
    With an ever-increasing amount of (meta)genomic data being deposited in sequence databases, (meta)genome mining for natural product biosynthetic pathways occupies a critical role in the discovery of novel pharmaceutical drugs, crop protection agents and biomaterials. The genes that encode these pathways are often organised into biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). In 2015, we defined the Minimum Information about a Biosynthetic Gene cluster (MIBiG): a standardised data format that describes the minimally required information to uniquely characterise a BGC. We simultaneously constructed an accompanying online database of BGCs, which has since been widely used by the community as a reference dataset for BGCs and was expanded to 2021 entries in 2019 (MIBiG 2.0). Here, we describe MIBiG 3.0, a database update comprising large-scale validation and re-annotation of existing entries and 661 new entries. Particular attention was paid to the annotation of compound structures and biological activities, as well as protein domain selectivities. Together, these new features keep the database up-to-date, and will provide new opportunities for the scientific community to use its freely available data, e.g. for the training of new machine learning models to predict sequence-structure-function relationships for diverse natural products. MIBiG 3.0 is accessible online at https://mibig.secondarymetabolites.org/.
  • Ítem
    Preliminary assessment of antivenom availability and management in the public health system of Costa Rica: An analysis based on a survey to pharmacists in public health facilities
    (2022-10-22) Montoya Vargas, Wendy Anabelle; Gutiérrez, José María; Quesada Morúa, María Soledad; Morera Huertas, Jessica; Rojas León, Ana Carolina; León Salas, Angie Rebeca
    Availability and accessibility of safe and effective antivenoms are key elements for the successful treatment of snakebite envenoming (SBE). This study provides a preliminary analysis on the way antivenoms are managed by the public health system in Costa Rica and on the role played by pharmacists in the overall management of antivenoms. This was an observational, cross-sectional study based on an online survey sent to pharmacists working at Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (Costa Rican Social Security System; CCSS) in different locations in Costa Rica. Characteristics and location of health facilities, as well as antivenom availability and management details, were analyzed. Responses from a total of 96 pharmacists, corresponding to 55 different healthcare facilities, were included in this study. Most respondents worked at pharmacies located in urban communities (69.0%) and in the secondary level of care, which includes clinics, and regional and peripheral hospitals (55.2%). Overall, participants reported antivenom availability at all levels of care and in centers having various operating schedules, although they were not available in some facilities in regions where SBE is uncommon or do not attend SBE cases because of the proximity of more complex health centers. On average, the stocks of anticoral and polyvalent antivenoms per health facility were compatible with the dose of antivenom required for treating a SBE case. More than half of participants reported knowing the availability of protocols for the management of SBE and the correct use of antivenom at their healthcare facilities. Of the total respondents, 49% agreed on possessing all the resources needed for the correct management of these medicines at their facilities, and 65.6% indicated that they know the procedures for antivenom storage and management. Our findings provide a first description of the availability of antivenoms in the public health system of Costa Rica, including the primary care level. Results also underscore the perceived role of participating pharmacists in the management of these life-saving drugs and the need to improve their knowledge on this topic.
  • Ítem
    Colorectal cancer: Generalities, diagnosis, and biological therapies as new treatment options
    (2022-09-04) Álvarez Vargas, Michelle; Herrera Aguilar, María José; Murillo Ugalde, Daniel; Quesada Lobo, Priscilla; Salazar Castro, Juan Diego; Mora Román, Juan José
    The development of a malignant adenocarcinoma in the colon's inner layer or rectum wall is known as colorectal cancer. It is attributed to genetic information but also can be acquired due to lifestyle or environmental risk factors. The pathology is usually diagnosed through a colonoscopy. One promising alternative for its treatment is biological therapies. They are designed to improve, focus, or restore immune system function. These can be used to complement traditional treatment (e.g., surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy). Immunotherapy is a classification of biological therapy, and it stimulates the immune system by generating a more effective therapeutic response in cancer treatment. It is possible to identify monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, oncological viruses, and novel methods such as chemoimmunotherapy, in which a cytotoxic agent and an immune response modifier are combined in a single drug. These options have brought promising results through several preclinical and clinical investigations.
  • Ítem
    Inmunoterapia activa con anticuerpos monoclonales como opción terapéutica para el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas
    (2022-06-29) Barquero Solano, Arisai; Guevara Saborío, Gloriana; Montero Rivera, Jeison; Vargas Sandoval, Lázaro; Velásquez Alfaro, Luis Daniel; Mora Román, Juan José
    El cáncer de páncreas es el sexto más mortal a nivel mundial, y en el caso específico de Costa Rica el sétimo en importancia. La gran problemática asociada a esta patología es un diagnóstico en etapas avanzadas, ya que sus síntomas son muy inespecíficos y en muchos casos no se presentan. Abonado a lo anterior, el tratamiento por excelencia es la cirugía, mas no resulta ser del todo alentadora, pues la mayoría de pacientes no pueden ser operados, y aunque se utilice quimioterapia y radioterapia, la supervivencia de vida a los cinco años es sumamente baja. Por eso, se han investigado nuevas opciones terapéuticas, incluidas las biológicas. Dentro de ellas, se encuentran los anticuerpos monoclonales, cuyo mecanismo de acción implica una inmunoterapia activa. En este momento, se encuentran en fase de investigación a través de estudios clínicos de fases I y II. Gran parte se está evaluando en combinación con otros fármacos. Los resultados sobre estos estudios son escasos, pero se espera a futuro disponer de mayor información, junto con un número creciente de opciones que permitan en el mediano plazo su disponibilidad como alternativas terapéuticas para mejorar la esperanza y la calidad de vida de las personas que padecen esta enfermedad.
  • Ítem
    Anticuerpos monoclonales para el tratamiento del COVID-19
    (2022-04-20) Arce Rodríguez, Noelia; Bermúdez Vargas, Cristopher; Gamboa Campos, Gerson; Martínez Vargas, Ernesto; Molina Orlich, María José; Tencio Villalobos, Diana; Mora Román, Juan José
    El COVID-19 es una enfermedad ocasionada por el virus SARS-CoV-2. Con el aumento explosivo de casos confirmados, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró este brote como emergencia de salud pública de interés internacional el 30 de enero de 2020, y como pandemia el 11 de marzo de ese mismo año. Desde ese momento, se han llevado a cabo investigaciones para hallar medicamentos contra este patógeno. Un ejemplo son los anticuerpos monoclonales, una herramienta poderosa para tratar una amplia gama de condiciones, tales como: cáncer, enfermedades autoinmunes, neuronales, infecciosas y metabólicas. En poco tiempo, algunos mostraron resultados alentadores en el mejoramiento de los síntomas clínicos de pacientes con dicha patología. Unos actúan de manera directa contra el virus y otros mediante mecanismos farmacológicos asociados a su fisiopatología. Su utilización representa una alternativa para reducir hospitalizaciones y muertes por la infección. Actualmente existe uno con aprobación completa (casirivimab e imdevimab, se administran en conjunto) y tres aprobados para uso de emergencia (bamlanivimab más etesevimab, se administran en conjunto; sotrovimab y tocilizumab) por parte de la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, es indispensable el desarrollo de más estudios clínicos para evidenciar su eficacia y su seguridad en diversas poblaciones, así como el estudio de nuevas moléculas.
  • Ítem
    Gastric Cancer: Generalities, Traditional Treatments, and Biological Therapies as New Therapeutic Options
    (2022-01-31) Aguilar Murillo, Raquel; Martínez Carpio, Stefanny; Ulloa Rojas, Raquel; Valerio Villalobos, Melissa; Mora Román, Juan José
    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent types worldwide. It is the fourth most common and the second most deadly. Costa Rica is the leading country where this pathology is diagnosed in Central America. Its development involves nutritional, genetic, and environmental factors, among others. Traditional treatments are based on surgery (considered first-line), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, work has been done on new biological therapies to improve the patients' quality of life and survival. Advances have been achieved in the field of microRNAs, in which there is a promising future. The most studied have been miR-218, miR-375, and miR-7, diminished in gastric tumors. As a complement, vaccines have been developed, including rMVHu191 and G17DT. Many have required the incorporation of adjuvants to enhance the immune response. Finally, monoclonal antibodies have been considered for distinct targets related to this disease. Of these molecules, only trastuzumab, ramucirumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab have approval against this illness. Although there is still a long way ahead, soon will be more available options.
  • Ítem
    Quality by design: A suitable methodology in industrial pharmacy for Costa Rican universities
    (2022-05-19) Castillo Henríquez, Luis; Murillo Castillo, Brayan; Chaves Siles, Lexi; Mora Román, Juan José; Ramírez Arguedas, Nils Antonio; Hernández Mora, Édgar; Vega Baudrit, José Roberto
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, but especially for Industrial Pharmacy, where it has contributed in terms of formulation development, manufacturing, and quality control. Academic research based on this model enables the training and development of practical, scientific, and leadership skills in Industrial Pharmacy students. The generated knowledge can be shared in classrooms, which represents an ideal environment to communicate research results and to foster collaborative work between researchers, professors, and students. Moreover, research performed through a QbD approach increases the confidence shown by the industrial sector and health regulatory authorities in the quality of the research, products, and knowledge that are developed and created in an Academy. As a result, the implementation of the model has allowed the creation, transfer, and materialization of knowledge from the Costa Rican Academy to different local pharmaceutical industries.
  • Ítem
    Hybrid Nanoparticles of Proanthocyanidins from Uncaria tomentosa Leaves: QTOF-ESI MS Characterization, Antioxidant Activity and Immune Cellular Response
    (2022) Araya Sibaja, Andrea Mariela; Wilhelm Romero, Krissia; Vargas Huertas, Luis Felipe; Quirós Fallas, María Isabel; Alvarado Corella, Luis Diego; Mora Román, Juan José; Vega Baudrit, José Roberto; Sánchez Kopper, Andrés; Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha
    Previous studies in Uncaria tomentosa have shown promising results concerning the characterization of polyphenols with leaves yielding more diverse proanthocyanidins and higher bioactivities values. However, the polyphenols-microbiota interaction at the colonic level and their catabolites avoid the beneficial effects that can be exerted by this medicinal plant when consumed. In this regard, a new generation of hybrid nanoparticles has demonstrated improvements in natural compounds’ activity by increasing their bioavailability. In this line, we report a detailed study of the characterization of a proanthocyanidin-enriched extract (PA-E) from U. tomentosa leaves from Costa Rica using UPLC-QTOF-ESI MS. Moreover, two types of hybrid nanoparticles, a polymeric-lipid (F-1) and a protein-lipid (F-2) loaded with PA-E were synthesized and their characterization was conducted by dynamic light scattering (DLS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and encapsulation efficiency (%EE). In addition, in vitro release, antioxidant activity through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) as well as in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction was evaluated. Results allowed the identification of 50 different compounds. The PA-E loaded nanoparticles F-1 and F-2 achieved encapsulation efficiency of ≥92%. The formulations exhibited porosity and spherical shapes with a size average of 26.1 ± 0.8 and 11.8 ± 3.3 nm for F-1 and F-2, respectively. PA-E increased its release rate from the nanoparticles compared to the free extract in water and antioxidant activity in an aqueous solution. In vivo, the delayed-type hypersensitive test shows the higher immune stimulation of the flavan-3-ols with higher molecular weight from U. tomentosa when administered as a nanoformulation, resulting in augmented antigen-specific responses. The present work constitutes to our knowledge, the first report on these bioactivities for proanthocyanidins from Uncaria tomentosa leaves when administrated by nanosystems, hence, enhancing the cellular response in mice, confirming their role in immune modulation.
  • Ítem
    Plants with antioxidant activity and their potential use as sun protector agents in Costa Rica
    (2023-03-23) Arguedas Herrera, Raquel; Arguedas Chacón, Sebastián; Rojas Salas, María Fernanda; Chavarría Rojas, Marianela; Vargas Zúñiga, Rolando; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo
    Aims: To carry out a bibliographic review related to plants available in Costa Rica that have demonstrated antioxidant power and a sun protection factor (SPF) suitable to be used in sunscreen products. Methods: The bibliographic review was carried out using different descriptors and by consulting different databases. Results: Information about antioxidant power about acerola, avocado, carrots, passion fruit, moringa, banana, pumpkin and amaranth, guava, matico, ginkgo, blackberry, mango, coffee was obtained. The information obtained suggests that the mentioned plants could be used for the formulation of sunscreens. Conclusion: Sun protection products should be used every day to prevent skin damage; some sunscreens produce allergic reactions, so it is necessary to investigate natural options to be used in sun protection products. Some natural products exhibit SPF values that allow their incorporation as sun protection agents, adjuvants, or enhancers in sunscreens.
  • Ítem
    Potential applications of drugs obtained from insect venoms
    (2022-02-20) Mora Román, Juan José; Calderón Arguedas, Sergio; Esquivel Solano, Alejandro; Rojas Salas, María Fernanda; González Corrales, Daniela; Matarrita Brenes, Daniela; Madrigal Redondo, German Leonardo
    Venoms are complex mixtures that vary depending on the producing species. Several proteins and peptides usually constitute them, along with nonprotein compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, metal ions, and other unidentified substances. These compounds and their respective toxins have different pharmacological activities, and in their purified forms, offer nontoxic biological activities at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations. The research summarizes the recent studies on insect venoms (bees, wasps, scorpions, among others) and their possible therapeutic applications. There is currently research at preclinical and clinical levels to demonstrate its applicability in diverse areas, thanks to its antifibrinolytic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and immunological properties (for both cancer and autoimmune diseases). In this way, the commercialization of therapies based on them, or the products found in these mixtures, is expected to grow considerably in the coming years because of the biotechnological tools, such as recombinant DNA techniques, transcriptomics, and proteomics.