Odontología

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    Crystallographic and Topographic Analysis of Ultra-Translucent Zirconia After Various Surface Treatments
    (2024-03-07) Vargas Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Santamaría Villalobos, Jorge Andrés
    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of 4 different surface treatments, on the crystallographic characteristics of Ultra-Translucent Zirconia. Fully sintered zirconia specimens of highly translucent yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) (KATANA UTML) were divided into four experimental groups and a control group (n=10). Each group received one of the following surface treatments: sandblasting with 50μm alumina particles (Al₂O₃), sandblasting with 110μm alumina particles, and grinding with a rotary high-speed turbine with and without water irrigation. For each sample, x-ray diffraction was carried out to analyze peak intensity, calculate the crystallite size, and detect the presence of compressive and tensile stress. Surface roughness was measured on all specimens using a standard scanning profilometer. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to qualitatively analyze the surfaces of the specimens. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (p≤0.05). The control group exhibited the highest crystallite size (323nm). All surface treatments led to a reduction in the crystallite size, with the most significant reduction observed in the groups subjected to sandblasting with 110μm alumina particles and high-speed grinding with irrigation. Sandblasting with 50μm alumina particles resulted in less transformation of the crystallite size. A general tendency of the diffraction peaks to shift to a lower angle can be observed in the experimental groups, indicating the presence of compressive stress on the samples. Profilometry revealed higher roughness in the ground samples (6,14μm and 6,57μm) compared to the sandblasted groups (2,93μm and 2,02μm). The crystal domain size showed a tendency to decrease after the surface treatments. Sandblasted samples, as well as ground samples without irrigation, exhibited compressive stress. Sandblasted samples had lower surface roughness compared to the ground samples. Sandblasting with 50μm alumina particles caused the least decrease in crystallite size.
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    Perception of oral health-related quality of life before the first step and after the second Step of periodontal therapy
    (2023) Fernández Gudiño, Andrés; Cruz Morera, María Amalia; Vega Cruz, Mariana; Quesada Romero, Sofía María; Alvarado Echeverría, Juan Ignacio; Vargas Godínez, María Mercedes; Piedra Hernández, Lucía; Gómez Fernández, Adrián; Ramírez Chan, Karol Gabriela
    Background: Periodontal research has focused on clinical outcomes of periodontitis and in a lesser extent on patient-reported outcomes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before the first step and after the second step of periodontitis therapy and 2) compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with changes in OHRQoL. Methods: Patients with periodontitis that had never been treated with subgingival plaque instrumentation were recruited. Clinical parameters were recorded. A questionnaire was applied to collect sociodemographic data, smoking status, and pain. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) was used to evaluate OHRQoL before the first step and after the second step of periodontitis therapy. Results: Fifty-one participants completed the study, mean age 46.88 years ± 11.16. OHIP-14 total score decreased from 16.98 ± 11.48 to 8.41 ± 9.06 after treatment. Improvements in physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, social disability, and handicap accounted for the changes. The most frequent periodontal staging was stage III. As for grading, Grade A was diagnosed in 16 (31.37 %) participants, Grade B in 16 (31.37 %), and Grade C in 17 (33.33 %). Mean plaque index was 61.4 % ± 17.6 before the first step of periodontitis therapy and 22.8 % ± 10.6 after. Pain in the last month decreased after periodontal care. No differences in OHRQoL changes were detected when comparing age categories, gender, and educational level. Better scores were reported from non-smokers, before and after therapy (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Periodontal therapy had a positive impact on self-perceived quality of life of patients.
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    Dental anxiety before the first step and after the second step of periodontitis therapy
    (2023) Sanabria Bogantes, Daniela; Redondo Gómez, Katherine Andrea; Artavia Segura, Johnny; Torres Venegas, José Andrés; Cubillo Vargas, Antonio; Solórzano Duarte, Dylan Arturo; Piedra Hernández, Lucía; Gómez Fernández, Adrián; Ramírez Chan, Karol Gabriela
    Introduction: individuals that experience Dental Anxiety (DA) may avoid dental appointments and even postpone treatments, including periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to 1) determine DA in patients with periodontitis before the first step and after the se cond step of periodontitis therapy (non surgical periodontal treatment), and 2) collect sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the studied population. Methods: patients with periodontitis that had never received subgingival instrumentation and attended the Clinic of Periodontics of the Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Costa Rica, were invited to participate. From the electronic dental record, the following information was obta ined: periodontal staging, Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI). A questionnaire was applied before the first step and after the second step of periodontitis therapy. Data collected included: sociodemographic factors, smoking habits, ex smoker status, pain, and the Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Results: fifty one patients completed the study, 19 men and 32 women, mean age 46 ±11.16 years. Most of the participants reported having com pleted high school. Regarding smoking habits, 46% were non smokers. Of the non smokers, 7.8% were former smokers. Patient’s maxim al pain in the last month decreased after the completion periodontitis therapy. The most prevalent periodontal diagnosis was Stage III followed by Stage II. The average PI was 61.4% and the average GBI was 39.5%. Fear to the sound of rotatory instruments/u ltrasonic scalers ameliorated after completion of therapy. Total MDAS score and sub scores decreased from baseline. Conclusion: self perceptions of DA improved over the course of periodontal treatment in our clinical setting.
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    Evaluación de la liberación de iones Ca2+, pH y resistencia a la flexión de cuatro cementos selladores endodónticos bioactivos
    (2023-12-12) Suárez Quesada, Luis Carlos; Infante Amore, Fiorella; Ramírez Hidalgo, Eladio; Benavides, Marianella
    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la liberación de iones de calcio, la resistencia a la flexión y el pH de los cementos endodónticos bioactivos ProRoot MTA Ⓡ, BIODENTINE Ⓡ y Bio C Repair Ⓡ y NeoPutty Ⓡ. Para evaluar la liberación de calcio se utilizaron 34 discos de 2 mm de dentina radicular estandarizados en el conducto con Gates Glidden número 6, obturados y sumergidos en una solución de 10 ml de PBS, se realizaron mediciones con pHímetro y espectrometría atómica al día 1, 3, 5, 10 y 15. En cuanto a la prueba de resistencia a la flexión, se confeccionaron moldes de 10 barras de 7 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm de cada material, almacenados en recipientes herméticos con humedad durante 48 horas, estos especímenes se sometieron a la prueba mini-flex. Resultados: Los discos de dentina obturados con el Biodentine obtuvieron una menor liberación de calcio y presentaron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=< 0.01) con respecto a los otros cementos; en la prueba de resistencia a la flexión el ProRoot MTA, se presentó mayor fuerza flexural; sin embargo, no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=>0.05) entre los cementos. Se concluye que el NeoPutty es el material con mayor liberación de iones de calcio a lo largo de los 15 días y ProRoot MTA obtuvo mayor resistencia a la flexión.
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    Neurofibroma solitario en paladar duro: Reporte de caso y revisión de literatura
    (2023-12-23) Suárez Quesada, Luis Carlos; Boza Oreamuno, Yadira Vanessa
    Introducción: Los neurofibromas son tumores benignos que se derivan de la vaina de nervios periféricos. Se caracterizan por la proliferación de células de Schwann, células perineurales y fibroblastos endoneurales. Pueden ser solitarios o estar asociados a síndromes como la neurofibromatosis tipo I y tipo II. Su aparición en cavidad oral es poco frecuente, siendo lengua la localización más común. Clínicamente se presentan como lesiones papulares, nodulares y tumorales de base sésil o pedunculada que varían de tamaño,deconsistencia fibrosa y de color similar alos tejidoscircundantes. Reporte de caso:mujer de 72 años con antecedente de meningioma, se presenta a consulta para cambiar prótesis totales removibles, se observaen launión delpaladar duro y blando al lado derecho de la línea media,una lesión papular cercana a la línea de vibración coincidiendo con el límite posterior de la prótesis superior, tamaño 10 x 8 mm de color similar a los tejidos circundantes, superficie lisa, blanda a la palpación y tiempo de evolución desconocido,paciente asintomática. Se realizóbiopsia excisionaly el estudiohistopatológico más inmunohistoquímica paraS100 confirmóque se trataba de un neurofibroma solitario. La evolución del paciente fue buena, sin recidivas. Conclusiones: se resalta la importancia deconsiderar alneurofibromacomo posible diagnóstico de lesiones papulares y tumorales en paladar, además, como en este caso una completa anamnesis, una correcta intervención quirúrgica y el estudio anatomopatológicopermitieronun diagnóstico definitivo de la lesión.
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    Fístula extraoral asociada a sialolitiasis en el conducto de Wharton. Reporte de un caso
    (2015-11-15) Obando Solano, Danny; Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    La sialolitiasis es una de las patologías que afectan con mayor frecuencia las glándulas salivales, y es en la glándula submandibular donde se presenta más comúnmente debido a sus características anatómicas. Existen muchas teorías que explican su etiología, pero aún no está completamente determinada. La sintomatología más común es la presencia de dolor, especialmente a la hora de comer debido a la estimulación salival producida por los alimentos. También se presenta inflamación del piso de la boca e infección, asociadas a procesos de sialadenitis crónica, la formación de fístulas cutáneas es muy poco frecuente. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 31 años quien presenta una fístula extraoral en lado izquierdo su cuello, a nivel de subzona Ib (submandibular) con una sialadenitis crónica asociada a sialolitiasis en el conducto de Wharton izquierdo con una evolución de cuatro años. Se realiza la descripción del manejo quirúrgico y se hace una revisión de la literatura.
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    Protocolo de control de infecciones 2014
    (2014) Rodríguez Villalobos, Patricia; Esquivel Umaña, Mónica; Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Como Centro docente y de atención clínica en Odontología, tenemos la obligación ética, moral y pedagógica de garantizar que, tanto el paciente como el personal odontológico (estudiantes, profesores, asistentes dentales), administrativos, personal de limpieza y otros, no estarán expuestos a enfermedades infectocontagiosas durante su atención, su trabajo y/o aprendizaje. Para evitar la propagación de enfermedades infectocontagiosas, es necesario interrumpir el proceso de transmisión de las mismas. Antes bien, se debe reconocer que además de la sangre todos los fluidos corporales son considerados infecciosos, y que todo paciente es potencialmente infeccioso. Lograr actitudes y conductas que atenúen el riesgo de los y las estudiantes, de los docentes, técnicos (as) dentales y demás personal que trabaja en la Clínica Docente de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Con el fin de reducir los riesgos de infecciones o enfermedades asociadas a cuidados de la salud oral se deben seguir las recomendaciones que el Protocolo de Control de Infecciones de la Facultad de Odontología pronuncia a continuación.
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    Age estimation through the development of third molars in a case of multiple dismemberment
    (2023-09) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Organized crime has become an international scourge made up of outlaw groups that carry out all kinds of activities ranging from human trafficking, kidnapping, extortion, drug trafficking and many more. As a result of this phenomenon, the disappearance and execution of people is becoming more frequent every day, in many cases the bodies are burned or dismembered to prevent or make identification more difficult. Forensic odontology has become a transcendental discipline in the identification of corpses and skeletal remains, in addition to having multiple methods to estimate the approximate age of a person. The case of a multiple dismemberment of three male individuals is presented, where it was essential to identify a person under 18 years of age.
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    Perception of the usefulness of dental records as a method of human identification in high-risk professions: the case of the Costa Rican Red Cross workers
    (2023-09) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introduction: Those who provide care in emergency situations are exposed to a high risk of injury or death during rescue work, whether in traffic accidents, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, or humanitarian crises generated by armed conflicts. This research was carried out among Costa Rican Red Cross (CRC) workers to establish the perception of the usefulness of dental records as a method of identification and to develop a single format for antemortem dental information. Materials and methods: A pilot questionnaire was designed and applied to 10 persons to be calibrated and validated. Subsequently, a final electronic questionnaire was generated in the Google Forms platform and sent via institutional e-mail to 175 workers, of whom 92 responded during the period from November 20, 2022, to January 20, 2023. The results were analyzed by means of frequency distributions, crossing of variables, and comparison of means based on the analysis of variance. The minimum confidence level for comparisons was 95%. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 92 people, 75% men and 25% women. The age range between 36 and 40 years was the most frequent (23.9%). A total of 60.9% worked in the province of San José, 58% indicated that they had visited the dentist a year ago or less and 38.6% said that they had never had a panoramic X-ray taken, 81.8% said they had dental treatments such as crowns, bridges or implants; and 75% considered dental records to be very useful as a method of identification, and placed it in second place in terms of knowledge (89.8%) when compared with DNA (97.7%) and dactyloscopy (86.4%). Conclusions: Costa Rican Red Cross workers consider dental records to be useful in the identification of human beings and have useful antemortem information for this purpose.
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    Professional liability in the practice of dentistry in Costa Rica: Part I
    (2023-03) Fallas Morales, Lucía; Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    The number of complaints related to professional liability in health sciences has increased worldwide, it is essential for dental professionals to be aware of the implications of their labor, as well as to comply with bioethical and legal principles to ensure a healthy dentist-patient relationship. It is important to understand that the practice of dentistry in Costa Rica is regulated by norms, codes, and laws like any other human activity in a State governed by the rule of law.
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    Understanding of informed consent by patients at the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica
    (2022-03) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introduction: Informed consent is the result of the evolution of the relationship between health professionals and their patients or users where the principle of autonomy is above anything else. There are many articles on informed consent but none of the studies found assessed whether patients really understand it. The objective of this research was to determine the level of understanding of informed consent by the patients of the Clinic of Oral Surgery of the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica, in the period August to September 2022, by means of a questionnaire that would allow correlating the understanding with the level of schooling. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was administered to 100 people divided into two parts, one on sociodemographic data and the other to establish the understanding of informed consent and to determine whether the level of schooling was related to the understanding of the same. Results: The group between 20 and 30 years of age was the largest, of these 51% had university studies, and although the majority (98%) referred to knowing the concept of informed consent, only 33% obtained the correct answers to the clinical questions asked. Conclusions: Even though patients refer to knowing what informed consent is the results suggest an unclear understanding of important concepts such as complications or immediate or late adverse reactions produced by the effect of dental treatments or surgical procedures
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    Difficulties in the identification of corpses and skeletal remains by Forensic Odontology in Costa Rica: Analysis of 165 autopsies
    (2022-09) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introduction: In Costa Rica the elaboration of dental records or clinical files is not performed routinely in all patients as it is required by law in many countries. The completion of the dental record is only regulated by the Code of Ethics of the Colegio de Cirujanos Dentistas de Costa Rica (Board of Dental Surgeons of Costa Rica), which means that failure to do so is considered an ethical-disciplinary offense with few consequences for the professional; however, it has serious consequences in the efforts to identify a person. This study aims to describe the impact of the absence or poor quality of antemortem data in identification cases performed by the Forensic Odontology Unit of the Department of Legal Medicine over a period of almost eight years (2015-2022). Materials and Methods: A detailed review was performed in the database of the Forensic Medicine System (SIMEL) of the Legal Medicine Department of the Judicial Investigation Organism of the totality of interconsultation requests of the Forensic Pathology Section from January 2015 to August 2022. The information collected was tabulated in Excel and included both the results of the expert analysis and the characteristics of the available antemortem information. Results: The analysis of the data made it possible to determine that in a period of almost 8 years 165 assessments were carried out for identification purposes, of which 51 individuals were identified, 9 cases presented insufficient information and 105 had no dental files. Conclusions: A complete dental record is indispensable for a positive identification; an incomplete or non-existent record nullifies the possibility of identifying a human being.
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    Accidental ingestion of a three-way (air-water-spray) syringe tip during dental procedure recovered by gastroscopy: case report
    (2021-09) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    The ingestion or aspiration of dental material or instruments is one of the most feared complications in clinical dental practice, it can occur in both children and adults. The mouth is a moist, dark, small area; where the involuntary movements of the patient during the procedures and the small dimensions of the materials and instruments turn dental care into a challenge. A swallowed or aspirated foreign body during dental treatment can result in serious complications and even death, these depend largely on the shape, size and anatomical pathway through which it passes. This article describes an uncommon complication of which there is only one report in the literature worldwide, the ingestion of the tip of a triple syringe during a routine dental procedure that was recovered by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. It also highlights the importance of knowing the protocols for handling aspirated or swallowed foreign bodies where a fast and adequate approach during the first minutes can make the difference between life and death.
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    Dental malpractice lawsuits in Costa Rica: analysis of 124 cases in the period 2015-2020
    (2021-09) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introduction: In Costa Rica, dental malpractice lawsuits (professional liability) are classified under the crime of culpable injuries according to the Criminal Code of Costa Rica. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of all the claims analyzed by the Forensic Dentistry Unit of the Department of Legal Medicine in a period of six years (2015-2020). Materials and methods: A detailed review was carried out in the database of the Legal Medicine System (SIMEL) of the Legal Medicine Department of the Organismo de Investigación Judicial (Judicial Investigation Agency) of all the complaints of dental "malpractice" filed since January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2020. The information collected was tabulated in Excel and classified by year, related dental discipline, sex of the complainant and the result of the expert analysis. Results: The data analysis determined a total of 124 complaints, the disciplines with the highest percentages were oral and maxillofacial surgery (39.52%), dental implants (16.94%) and orthodontics (12.9%). More than two thirds (66.12%) of the complaints correspond to women and within the results of the forensic report 10% of the cases were positive, 32% negative and 58% inconclusive. Conclusions: the complete dental record is essential to be able to determine a causal link between the investigated facts and the results of a treatment; in this study more than 50% of the files where incomplete, invasive procedures such as oral surgery generate a greater possibility of lawsuits that could be avoided through proper management of risks and complications, adequate patient-caregiver communication, and management of treatment expectations.
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    Perception of the usefulness of dental records as a method of human identification in high-risk professions: the case of the OIJ investigators
    (2022-03) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introduction: People who work in criminal investigations are exposed to a high risk of suffering injuries or dying during operations against organized crime that can cause conditions that make identification difficult by conventional methods. This research was carried out in the investigators of the Organismo de Investigación Judicial (Judicial Investigation Agency) to establish the perception of the usefulness of dental records as a method of identification and to elaborate a unique format of dental information antemortem. Materials and methods: A pilot questionnaire was designed and applied to 10 people to be calibrated and validated. Subsequently, a final electronic questionnaire was generated on the Google Forms platform that was sent via institutional email to all the investigators consisting of 1200 individuals, of which 807 responded in the period of the June 21 to July 20, 2021. The results were analyzed by frequency distributions, crossing of variables, comparison of means based on the analysis of variance. The minimum confidence level for comparisons was 95%. Results: The questionnaire was conducted by 807 people, 79% men and 21% women. The mean age was 37.8 years (95% CI: 37.3 – 38.48) with no statistically significant difference (p=0.419), 80% work in the Central Region of the country, 78% indicate that they visited the dentist a year or less ago and 69% report that at some point they have taken a panoramic X-ray, 89% say they have dental treatments such as crowns, bridges or implants; and 88% consider dental records as a method of identification very useful, and place it in third place in knowledge (95.5%) when compared with DNA (99.6%) and dactyloscopy (98.7%). Conclusions: The investigators of the Judicial Investigation Agency consider that dental records are useful in the identification of human beings and have useful antemortem information for this purpose.
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    Conceptos básicos sobre el método de Lamendin en la estimación de edad
    (2021-03) Corrales Monge, Susana; Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    La odontología forense representa una de las disciplinas más útiles en la identificación de seres humanos, los dientes también pueden brindar entre otras características la edad aproximada de una persona. A lo largo de la historia se han desarrollado diferentes métodos de estimación de edad dentro de los cuáles el método de Lamendin (translucidez radicular) resulta sencillo y bastante preciso sin la necesidad de equipo especializado para su realización. Como cualquier método diagnóstico presenta limitaciones, puede ser utilizado en adultos después de los 20 años en dientes unirradiculares sin caries, presentando mayor fiabilidad y precisión, cuando el rango de edad se mantiene entre 40 y 70 años. Sin embargo, el mismo no toma en consideración el sexo, ni la raza, por lo que esto puede representar una limitación considerable; aunado a lo anterior en Costa Rica hasta hoy no existen estudios que permitan corroborar la efectividad del método Lamendin en la población.
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    Determinación de la simbología más utilizada en expedientes odontológicos en Costa Rica en el año 2019 con fines de identificación de seres humanos
    (2020-03) Hernández Carazo, Diana; Solano Romero, Kandy; Torres Guevara, Esteban; Trejos Cisneros, José Joaquín; Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introducción: El objetivo de la investigación fue establecer cuál es la simbología utilizada por los profesionales en odontología para documentar los hallazgos odontológicos más comunes en sus expedientes; con la finalidad de incluirla en un formato único odontológico estandarizado con fines de identificación en Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Mediante un cuestionario se identificó y comparó la simbología utilizada por profesionales en odontología generales y especialistas para registrar los hallazgos odontológicos en sus expedientes. Se realizó una fase piloto con 8 cuestionarios y posterior a las correcciones se aplicó a una muestra de 49 odontólogos que incluyó a profesionales en odontología generales y de todas las especialidades. Las técnicas estadísticas utilizadas para el análisis de la información recolectada en las encuestas son las distribuciones de frecuencia, cruce de variables, comparación de medias con base en el análisis de variancia. El nivel mínimo de confianza para las comparaciones fue del 95%. El procesamiento estadístico de los datos se diseñó una base de datos creada en EPI-INFO 6.4, el procesamiento estadístico de los datos se realizó en SPSS versión 13.0 y en Excel. Resultados: De los 49 participantes, 56% fueron hombres y 44% mujeres. La edad varía entre 25 y 65 años; la edad promedio fue de 44,5 años (IC 95%: 41,7 – 47,3) y una edad mediana [1] de 43 años, la cual no tuvo diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,552) entre la edad promedio entre los hombres y mujeres. El 70% de los odontólogos usan expediente físico, mientras que sólo un 17% usan expediente digital, y el 13% usan ambos; en el expediente digital es en el que se presenta la mayoría de problemas con un 62,5 %, en comparación al físico que tiene una prevalencia de 36,4% donde el principal problema es que no se comprendió la letra en un 86,7%. Conclusiones: El examen clínico odontológico es de extrema utilidad para colaborar en el proceso de identificación de víctimas mortales, sin embargo, se logró identificar, que no todos los profesionales en odontología en Costa Rica realizan una adecuada documentación en sus expedientes clínicos. Se propone una simbología estandararizada para dicha documentación.
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    Análisis morfológico de rugosidades palatinas en una población costarricense
    (2020-09) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer los patrones morfológicos presentes en las rugosidades palatinas de una población costarricense mediante el método de Trobo y efectuar un análisis estadístico con las variables de sexo, edad y afinidad biológica. Se eligiron al azar 70 pacientes a los que se realizaron impresiones y modelos dentales superiores, se documentó el sexo, edad y afinidad biológica de cada uno, junto con el consentimiento informado. Se analizó estadísticamente la distribución de patrones de género, edad y afinidad biológica. Las técnicas para el análisis de la información fueron las distribuciones de frecuencia, cruce de variables, comparación de medias con base en el análisis de variancia, coeficiente de correlación de Spearman; pruebas de Chi cuadrado, para evaluar la independencia entre las características de edad y sexo. Estas pruebas señalan un predominio de tipos de rugas palatinas rectas y de tipo simples tanto en la población masculina como femenina, sin encontrarse variación en el número de rugas asociadas a sexo o afinidad biológica; pero sí se determinó diferencia por grupo de edad, disminuyen en número conforme se incrementa la edad. Por otra parte no se presentó dimorfismo por sexo, lateralidad ni posición.
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    Evaluación de la satisfacción de los usuarios con la atención recibida en la Unidad de Odontología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial en el segundo semestre del 2018
    (2020) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introducción: El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la satisfacción de los usuarios con la atención recibida en la Unidad de Odontología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial en cuanto a infraestructura, trato recibido y tiempo, durante el segundo semestre del 2018, para la formulación de recomendaciones que contribuyeran con la calidad de los servicios. Materiales y métodos: Mediante un cuestionario se evaluaron las variables: tiempo de atención, trato recibido e infraestructura y se solicitaron datos sociodemográficos de forma anónima en una muestra de 57 personas; el análisis de los datos se efectúo mediante coeficientes de variación, promedios y cruces de variables mediante una base de datos en Excel que fue procesada con SPSS 22. Resultados: El promedio de satisfacción general es de un 1,46% muy insatisfecho, un 0,33% insatisfecho, un 4.02% satisfecho y en la categoría muy satisfecho el valor promedio de la satisfacción total es del 94,19%. El 36% de la muestra corresponde a mujeres y 64% a hombres; el promedio de edad es de 37,2 años, la secundaria es el nivel educativo predominante (44%). El motivo de valoración principal en ambos sexos es la violencia común. La mayoría de los evaluados proviene de la región central y tardan menos de una hora en trasladarse a valoración. (50,9%). Conclusiones: En términos generales, la infraestructura es muy satisfactoria, al igual que el trato recibido; la variable tiempo influye en la disminución del promedio de satisfacción principalmente porque el horario y disponibilidad para la asignación de las citas no satisface a todos los usuarios específicamente a los provenientes de Guanacaste, Puntarenas y Limón que tardan tres horas o más en trasladarse hasta la Ciudad Judicial.
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    Utilidad de expedientes odontológicos disponibles en Costa Rica en el año 2018 para la identificación de víctimas de desastres según el protocolo de INTERPOL
    (2020) Fernández Chaves, José Manuel
    Introduction: The identification by dental methods has proven its effectiveness for a long time, but in recent years it has played a determining role in the identification of victims of mass disasters and crimes against humanity. One of the determining factors for positive identification is the quality of antemortem information. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality of the information collected in the dental records during the year 2018 in Costa Rica with respect to the information contemplated in the INTERPOL protocols. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, in which a questionnaire was conducted based on the information requested in the INTERPOL antemortem and postmortem forms for identification of disaster victims (DVI). A pilot questionnaire was carried out and applied to 10 dentists, later a calibrated final questionnaire was done electronically through the College of Dental Surgeons of Costa Rica in the Google Docs platform; the results were analyzed by means of frequency distributions, crossing of variables, comparison of means based on analysis of variance. The minimum confidence level for the comparisons was 95%. The statistical processing of the data was done in the database called SPSS version 17.0 and in Excel. Results: A total of 573 questionnaires were answered, of which 76% are women; the distribution is independent of age (p = 0.161). 90.2% of dentists generally elaborate a dental clinical record for their patients, 8.4% sometimes do not and 1.4% do not always do it. 69% of the interviewees indicate that the information that they collect in the dental clinical file can be useful for the identification of a person, 19% indicate that they do not know that this information can be used for identification and 12% indicate that it is not Useful. Conclusions: The dental clinical file is extremely useful to collaborate in the process of identification of fatalities, however there is a large amount of non-dental information that can be collected by dentists to facilitate the identification of human beings.