Normative data and standardization of an international protocol for the evaluation of metacognition in Spanish‑speaking university students: A cross‑cultural analysis




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Gutierrez de Blume, Antonio P.
Montoya Londoño, Diana Marcela
Daset, Lilián
Cuadro, Ariel
Molina Delgado, Mauricio
Morán Núñez, Olivia
García de la Cadena, Claudia
Beltrán Navarro, María Beatríz
Arias Trejo, Natalia
Ramírez Balmaceda, Ana

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A deeper understanding of what factors influence metacognition has never become more pressing than in today’s digital era, in which information flows constantly and quickly. To this end, the present study explored the role of culture in mediating how individuals experience metacognitive phenomena. For this purpose, the International Group on Metacognition (IGM) developed a rigorous standard international protocol to measure metacognition in Spanish-speaking university students (N = 1,461) in 12 cultures in Latin-America and Spain, employing both a subjective measure of metacognitive awareness (the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory [MAI]) and various metrics of objective metacognitive monitoring across three domains of learning—vocabulary, probabilities (mathematical reasoning), and paper folding (visual-spatial reasoning). Data were subsequently compared across the various cultures with subjective metacognitive awareness and the raw frequencies of the four mutually exclusive cells of the 2 × 2 performance/judgment array as outcomes. Results revealed significant differences regarding both macro-level components of subjective metacognitive awareness, knowledge and regulation of cognition. Further, significant and meaningful differences emerged for the raw frequencies of the four mutually exclusive cells as a function of culture, especially for vocabulary, in which differences among cultures emerged for all four cells. Implications for metacognitive research, theory, and practice are discussed.


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