A distinctive oral phenotype points to FAM20A mutations not identified by Sanger sequencing




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Poulter, James A.
Smith, Claire E. L.
Murillo Knudsen, Gina
Silva de la Fuente, Sandra Maria
Feather, Sally
Howell Ramírez, Marianella
Crinnion, Laura
Bonthron, David
Carr, Ian M.
Watson, Christopher M.

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Biallelic FAM20A mutations cause two conditions where Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is the presenting feature: Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Gingival Fibromatosis Syndrome; and Enamel Renal Syndrome. A distinctive oral phenotype is shared in both conditions. On Sanger sequencing of FAM20A in cases with that phenotype, we identified two probands with single, likely pathogenic heterozygous mutations. Given the recessive inheritance pattern seen inall previous FAM20A mutation-positive families and the potential for renal disease, further screening was carried out to look for a second pathogenic allele. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cDNA was used to determine transcript levels. CNVseq was used to screen for genomic insertions and deletions. In one family, FAM20AcDNA screening revealed only a single mutated FAM20A allele with the wild-type allele not transcribed. In the second family, CNV detection by whole genome sequencing (CNVseq) revealed a heterozygous 54.7 kb duplication encompassing exons 1 to 4 of FAM20A. This study confirms the link between biallelic FAM20A mutations and the characteristic oral phenotype. It highlights for the first time examples of FAM20A mutations missed by the most commonly used mutation screening techniques. This information informed renal assessment and ongoing clinical care.


Palabras clave

Amelogenesis imperfecta, CNVseq, FAM20A, Enamel renal syndrome