The dynamics of local tissue damage induced by Bothrops asper snake venom and myotoxin II on the mouse cremaster muscle: an intravital and electron microscopic study
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The acute tissue damaging effects of Bothrops riper snake venom and a myotoxic Lys-49 phospholipase A2 (myotoxin In on the mouse cremaster muscle were studied by intravital and electron microscopy. Both venom and myotoxin induced local contractions of the muscle fibres within 10-60 sec after exposure, which disappeared after 1-2 min. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that Bothrops myotoxins act initially at the sarcolemma by affecting its permeability and allowing an influx ofcalcium. The venom also induced an early but transient vasoconstriction of arterioles. The development of edema was monitored using i.v. FITC-dextran as a marker. Plasma leakage started after about 2 min of exposure to venom or myotoxin, was extensive by 4-5 min, and originated from small venules and their adjoining capillary segments. The venom induced formation of thrombi and emboli in venules, but not in arterioles . Haemorrhage appeared after 4-b min ofexposure, the bleedings always originating from capillaries and small venules. The microbleedings were explosive, appearing as rapid bursts of erythrocytes into the extravascular space, and suggesting a per rhexis type of haemorrhage. This was confirmed by electron microscopy evaluation of the same microvessels observed intravitally, which showed erythrocyte extravasation through gaps in damaged endothelial cells. Other phenomena in the microcirculation included blood-flow disturbances, cremation and sphering of erythrocytes, and stasis with dense packing of cells in capillary networks. Muscle necrosis, caused by either venom or myotoxin, started 3~ min after application. The first sign of damage in the fibres was the development of a narrow, transverse band with local loss of striation. This was followed by slow retraction of myofibrils until there was a complete transverse rupture of the fibre. This process was often repeated along the same fibre, leaving a row of fragments separated by spaces apparently devoid of myofibrillar material. The results confirm the rapid tissue damaging effects of B. riper venom, implying that potentially useful blocking agents must be administered early and have the ability to diffuse rapidly into the tissues.
External link to the item10.1016/0041-0101(94)90020-5
- Microbiología