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Emergence of an Outbreak-Associated Clostridium difficile Variant with Increased Virulence
The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infections has increased due to the emergence of epidemic variants from diverse genetic lineages. Here we describe the emergence of a novel variant during an outbreak in a Costa Rican ...
Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks
Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficileassociated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent ...
Isolation of a Toxigenic and Clinical Genotype of Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats in Costa Rica
We isolated a regional toxigenic genotype of Clostridium difficile, previously found in human infection in 4 of 200 (2%) samples of retail meats for human consumption: 1 of 67 samples of beef, 2 of 66 of pork, and 1 of 67 ...
Emergence of Clostridium difficile NAP1 in Latin America
The NAP1 and NAP2 strains of Clostridium difficile have been linked to nosocomial outbreaks of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and pseudomembranous colitis in North American and European countries (4, 5). We found ...