Janzen-Connell effects shape gene flow patterns and realized fitness in the tropical dioecious tree Spondias purpurea (ANACARDIACEAE)
Cristóbal Pérez, Edson Jacob
Fuchs Castillo, Eric J.
Olivares Pinto, Ulises
Quesada Avendaño, Mauricio
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Pollination and seed dispersal patterns determine gene flow within plant populations. In tropical forests, a high proportion of trees are dioecious, insect pollinated and dispersed by vertebrates. Dispersal vectors and density dependent factors may modulate realized gene flow and influence the magnitude of Fine Scale Genetic Structure (FSGS), affecting individual fitness. Spondias purpurea is a vertebrate-dispersed, insect-pollinated dioecious tropical tree. We assessed the influence of sex ratio, effective and realized gene flow on genetic diversity, FSGS and individual fitness within a 30 ha plot in the tropical dry forest reserve of Chamela-Cuixmala, Mexico. All individuals within the plot were tagged, geo-referenced and sampled for genetic analysis. We measured dbh and monitored sex expression during two reproductive seasons for all individuals. We collected seeds directly from maternal trees for effective pollen dispersal analysis, and analyzed established seedlings to assess realized pollen and seed dispersal. Nine microsatellite loci were used to describe genetic diversity parameters, FSGS and gene flow patterns among different size classes. A total of 354 individuals were located and classified into three size classes based on their dbh (<10, 10–20, and >20 cm). Population sex ratios were male biased and diametric size distributions differed among sexes, these differences may be the result of precocious male reproduction at early stages. Autocorrelation analyses indicate low FSGS (Fj <0.07) across all size classes. Long realized pollen and seed dispersal and differences among effective and realized gene flow were detected. In our study site low FSGS is associated with high gene flow levels. Effective and realized gene flow indicate a population recruitment curve indicating Janzen-Connell effects and suggesting fitness advantages for long-distance pollen and seed dispersal events.
External link to the item10.1038/s41598-020-61394-4
- Biología