Ecotoxicological test based on inhibition of fungal laccase activity: Application to agrochemicals and the monitoring of pesticide degradation processes
Chan Cheng, Melissa
Cambronero Heinrichs, Juan Carlos
Masís Mora, Mario Alberto
Rodríguez Rodríguez, Carlos E.
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Ecotoxicological evaluations require the use of assays with several bioindicators from different trophic levels. Only a few ecotoxicological tests using fungi have been developed, reason why, detection of adverse effects from compounds that exert fungicide action may be overlooked. This work developed a toxicity test based on the inhibition of laccase enzymatic activity in the fungus Trametes versicolor. The test was applied to several fungicides and succeeded to determine inhibition values (half maximum effective concentration, EC50) for most of them (flusilazole, imazalil, pyrimethanil, tetraconazole), though a clear dose-response was not evident for others (thiabendazole, metalaxyl). The application on atrazine (herbicide), imidacloprid (insecticide) and oxytetracycline (antibiotic), proved the proposed test is suitable towards other agrochemicals. The test was also used to estimate the detoxification resulting from two different approaches employed in the removal of agrochemicals. (a) First, in the liquid-phase elimination by fungal biomass simultaneously removing atrazine, imazalil, tebuconazole and triadimenol, the test showed a significant decrease in toxicity by biodegradation (adsorption contribution to detoxification was negligible). (b) Second, a solid-phase biomixture (used for pesticide degradation from agricultural wastewater) partially removed atrazine, imazalil, metalaxyl and pyrimethanil after 33 d; nonetheless, this system could not reduce the toxicity of the matrix, and higher laccase inhibition was detected after the treatment. The design test increases the battery of available bioassays to determine the toxicity of agrochemicals, and provides an interesting tool to monitor biodegradation processes.
External link to the item10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110419
- Biología