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dc.creatorPierce, David W.
dc.creatorBarnett, Tim P.
dc.creatorHidalgo León, Hugo G.
dc.creatorDas, Tapash
dc.creatorBonfils, Céline
dc.creatorSanter, Benjamin D.
dc.creatorBala, Govindasamy
dc.creatorDettinger, Michael D.
dc.creatorCayan, Daniel R.
dc.creatorMirin, Arthur A.
dc.creatorWood, Andrew W.
dc.creatorNozawa, Toru
dc.date.accessioned2017-05-30T22:01:05Z
dc.date.available2017-05-30T22:01:05Z
dc.date.issued2008-12-01
dc.identifier.citationhttp://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/2008JCLI2405.1es_ES
dc.identifier.issn0894-8755
dc.identifier.issn1520-0442
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10669/29849
dc.description.abstractObservations show snowpack has declined across much of the western United States over the period 1950–99. This reduction has important social and economic implications, as water retained in the snowpack from winter storms forms an important part of the hydrological cycle and water supply in the region. A formal model-based detection and attribution (D–A) study of these reductions is performed. The detection variable is the ratio of 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE) to water-year-to-date precipitation (P), chosen to reduce the effect of P variability on the results. Estimates of natural internal climate variability are obtained from 1600 years of two control simulations performed with fully coupled ocean–atmosphere climate models. Estimates of the SWE/P response to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, ozone, and some aerosols are taken from multiple-member ensembles of perturbation experiments run with two models. The D–A shows the observations and anthropogenically forced models have greater SWE/P reductions than can be explained by natural internal climate variability alone. Model-estimated effects of changes in solar and volcanic forcing likewise do not explain the SWE/P reductions. The mean model estimate is that about half of the SWE/P reductions observed in the west from 1950 to 1999 are the result of climate changes forced by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, ozone, and aerosols.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipLawrence Livermore National Laboratory///Estados Unidoses_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipScripps Institution of Oceanography//SIO/Estados Unidoses_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology///Japónes_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipCalifornia Energy Commission///Estados Unidoses_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipProgram of Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison/[DOE-W-7405-ENG-48]/PCMDI/Estados Unidoses_ES
dc.language.isoen_USes_ES
dc.sourceJournal of Climate; Volumen 21, Número 23. 2008es_ES
dc.subjectSnowpackes_ES
dc.subjectHydrologic cyclees_ES
dc.subjectCoupled Modelses_ES
dc.subjectGreenhouse gaseses_ES
dc.titleAttribution of Declining Western U.S. Snowpack to Human Effectses_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articlees_ES
dc.typeArtículo científicoes_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/2008JCLI2405.1
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias Básicas::Centro de Investigaciones Geofísicas (CIGEFI)es_ES


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