Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms trigger microbicidal functions of peritoneal leukocytes in vivo
Zamunér, Stella Regina
Gutiérrez, José María
Muscará, Marcelo N.
Teixeira, Simone A.
Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima
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Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops cause pronounced local effects in the victims. These alterations result not only from the direct toxic action of venom components, but also from the prominent inflammatory reaction associated with these envenomations. In this study we investigated the ability of Bothrops asper (BaV) and Bothrops jararaca (BjV) venoms to induce cellular influx and microbicidal functions in leukocytes. BaV and BjV (5 μg/animal) caused a long lasting infiltration of leukocytes (3–48 h) when injected into mouse peritoneal cavity. Both venoms increased phagocytosis and production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) peritoneal leukocytes. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages was also enhanced after the venom injections. This effect was inhibited by treating animals with L-NAME and aminoguanidine, thus suggesting the induction of iNOS synthesis by the venoms. Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of iNOS in macrophages. BaV and BjV injection led to increased levels of IFN-γ at the site of inflammation. Since IFN-γ is an effective inducer of iNOS expression, an indirect action of the venoms on iNOS expression can be proposed. A marked formation of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins was also observed in macrophage homogenates. Based on these results, we suggest that reactive oxygen and nitrogen-derived species are involved in the pathogenesis of the local tissue damage characteristic of Bothrops sp envenomations.
Enlace externo al ítem10.1016/S0041-0101(01)00123-4
- Microbiología