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Frugivoría y dispersión de semillas de la palma Oenocarpus bataua (Arecaceae) en un bosque de los Andes colombianos

dc.creatorRojas Robles, Rosario
dc.creatorStiles, F. Gary
dc.creatorMuñoz Saba, Yaneth
dc.descriptionFrugivory and seed dispersal Oenocarpus bataua palm (Arecaceae) in a forest from the Colombian Andes. Seed dispersal is a key process that determines the spatial structure and dynamics of popula- tions of plants, establishes the potential area of recruitment and in this way, the basis for subsequent processes such as predation, germination, competition and growth. The purpose of this research was to identify the guild of frugivores of the Oenocapus bataua palm in fragments of Andean forest, determine the effective dispers- ers and relate the spatial distribution of palm populations with the dispersion of seeds. To this end, between August 2005-June 2006, observations of the removal of fruits from eight clusters were done, and counting of consumption of fruits beneath 78 palms with mature fruits was undertaken; focal observations of 13 individuals during 90 hours; registration of frugivory with photographic traps during 165 days/nights for a total of 195 pho- tographs and 144 consumption events; experiments with dispersion using 751 perforated fruits/seeds attached to strings and finally, plots to determine spatial distribution all were carried out. In the study area at least five species of mammals ate, dispersed, buried (Sciurus granatensis, Microsciurus mimulus, Dasyprocta punctata y Proechimys sp.), cover (Marmosa robinsoni) and carried the fruits of O. bataua off to caves (Marmosa robinsoni y Proechimys sp.) without damaging the seed. A 21.7% of the fruits were dispersed, 13.2 gnawed or peeled, 5.6% covered, buried and carried to caves. The average distance of removal of seeds and fruits was 3.1m although in a lesser proportion, dispersion events of >50m were recorded. The abundant production of fruits, their size and weight, their intense removal by frugivores, the short dispersion distances, the absence of large size frugi- vores (reduced by hunting and fragmentation), that might perform long-distance dispersion, and the increase of rodents, especially squirrels, that strongly pressure the fruit resource, generate a spatially restricted seed rain of seeds responsible for the aggregate patterns of distribution of seeds, seedlings and subsequently of juveniles and sub-adults. However the short time and high percentage of seed germination and the robustness of seeds and seedlings give O. bataua the capacity to survive in dense aggregations. Therefore, despite the limitations on dispersion, this is a dominant species in the study area. Populations of O. bataua have been reduced by intense exploitation and by the transformation and reduction of their natural habitat. The over-exploitation of the fruits or the juvenile phases of this palm can affect the age structure and population dynamics. Therefore, the manage- ment and exploitation of this palm in the future will depend to large degree on the conservation of forest habitats.en-US
dc.descriptionEn zonas bajas tropicales, en bosques continuos y relativamente poco intervenidos, los frutos de la palma Oenocarpus bataua Mart., son consumidos por diversas especies de vertebrados, sin embargo, no hay estudios de dispersión de más largo plazo con esta especie. Entre agosto 2005-septiembre 2006 se realizaron observaciones de remoción de frutos, conteo de frutos comidos, obser- vaciones focales, registros de frugivoría mediante trampas fotográficas, experimentos de dispersión y parcelas para determinar distribución espacial de Oenocarpus bataua. Cinco especies de mamíferos comen, dispersan, entierran (Sciurus granatensis, Microsciurus mimulus, Dasyprocta punctata y Proechimys sp.), tapan (Marmosa robinsoni) y llevan a las cuevas (Marmosa robinsoni y Proechimys sp.), los frutos de O. bataua, sin dañar la semilla. El 21.7% de los frutos fueron dispersados, 13.2% roídos o pelados, 5.6% tapados, enterrados y llevados a cuevas. La distancia media de remoción de semillas y frutos fue 3.1m, aunque en menor proporción se registraron eventos de dispersión > a 50m. La abundante producción, el tamaño, el peso, la intensa remoción de los frutos por frugívoros, las cortas distancias de dispersión, la ausencia de frugívoros de gran porte disminuidos por cacería y fragmentación, encargados de la dispersión de larga distancia y el aumento de roedo- res, especialmente ardillas que presionan fuertemente el recurso frutos, generan una lluvia de semillas espacialmen- te restringida, posiblemente responsable de los patrones de distribución agregados en semillas, plántulas y posterior- mente en juveniles y
dc.publisherUniversidad de Costa Ricaen-US
dc.rightsCopyright (c) 2014 International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservationen-US
dc.sourceRevista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation; Vol. 60 (4) December 2012en-US
dc.sourceRevista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation; Vol. 60 (4) December 2012es-ES
dc.sourceRevista Biología Tropical; Vol. 60 (4) December 2012pt-PT
dc.subjectoenocarpus batauaen-US
dc.subjectcamera trappingen-US
dc.subjectspatial distributionen-US
dc.subjectoenocarpus batauaes-ES
dc.subjectcámaras trampaes-ES
dc.subjectdistribución espaciales-ES
dc.titleFrugivoría y dispersión de semillas de la palma Oenocarpus bataua (Arecaceae) en un bosque de los Andes colombianosen-US
dc.titleFrugivoría y dispersión de semillas de la palma Oenocarpus bataua (Arecaceae) en un bosque de los Andes colombianoses-ES

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